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Center for Policy Studies
Public Affairs Discussion Group

Challenges Facing the U.S. Intelligence Community

Vincent E. McHale, Ph.D. - Marcus A. Hanna Emeritus Professor of Political Science at Case Western Reserve University
Friday February 24, 2017
12:30-1:30 p.m.
Dampeer Room
Kelvin Smith Library
Case Western Reserve University

Dear Colleagues:

Spies have been part of foreign relations at least since Joshua checked out Jericho. The case for what we now call "Intelligence" was made by Sun Tzu about 2500 years ago. He wrote that spying was not just necessary but efficient and humane:

"Raising a host of a hundred thousand men and marching them great distances entails heavy loss on the people and a drain on the resources of the State."

"The daily expenditure will amount to a thousand ounces of silver. There will be commotion at home and abroad, and men will drop down exhausted on the highways."

"As many as seven hundred thousand families will be impeded in their labor."

"Hostile armies may face each other for years, striving for the victory which is decided in a single day."

"This being so, to remain in ignorance of the enemy's condition simply because one grudges the outlay of a hundred ounces of silver in honors and emoluments, is the height of inhumanity."

"One who acts thus is no leader of men, no present help to his sovereign, no master of victory."

"Thus what enables the wise sovereign and the good general to strike and conquer, and achieve things beyond the reach of ordinary men, is foreknowledge,"

"Now this foreknowledge cannot be elicited from spirits; it cannot be obtained inductively from experience, nor by any deductive calculation."

"Knowledge of the enemy's dispositions can only be obtained from other men."

Now spying has been enhanced by extensive technology; information gathering shades into "black ops"; and a massive intelligence community is divided into organizations with different cultures, difficult to govern, oriented to a wide variety of different threats, and sharing uncertain relations with their political overseers. The development of a huge intelligence apparatus within the national security state has long fueled worries that its actions would be focused in scary ways on U.S. citizens, or pursue foreign policy means that would blow back on the United States, as arguably happened with discovery of the use of "enhanced interrogation techniques" at Guantanano and Abu Ghraib.

"Intelligence failures" such as Saddam Hussein's nonexistent "weapons of mass destruction" feed distrust of the organizations, yet television and movies are saturated with stories of brave agents breaking bureaucratic rules to save us.

For decades, Vince McHale taught CWRU students about the uses of and tensions about "intel" in his course on United States Intelligence and National Security. They learned about the history and development of the U.S. Intelligence community, within the inherent conflict between the necessity for spying and its uncomfortable fit with both democratic politics and the separation of Congress from the Executive. Counterintelligence can fit poorly with Intelligence, and with the demand to keep the intelligence agencies out of "domestic surveillance." He emphasized not just U.S. experience, but how that differs from the use and governance of the Intelligence operations in Russia, the U.K., Israel and other countries. He highlighted efforts to create and maintain an Intelligence profession with an appropriate code of ethics, and the new politics and pressures created by growing roles of non-state actors, and the temptations of new technology.

He joins us to discuss how these relatively familiar tensions about the community are now joined by the effects of President Trump's election, the charges of Russian influence on the election, and Trump's approach to Intelligence matters, so far.

All best regards,
Joe White
Luxenberg Family Professor of Public Policy and Director, Center for Policy Studies

About Our Guest

Dr. Vincent E. McHale received his Ph.D. from the Pennsylvania State University in 1969 where he was also awarded a certificate in Russian area studies. After teaching at the University of Pennsylvania, he joined the faculty of CWRU in 1975, serving until he retired as Marcus A. Hanna Professor in 2014.

Professor McHale's early research focused on French and Italian electoral politics, but his research and publications expanded to include politics, political systems, and socio-political change across Europe. He also has published on crime and violence in 19th-century Europe. His books include Vote, Clivages Socio-politiques, et Developpement Regional en Belgique (1974), Evaluating Transnational Programs in Government and Business (co-edited, 1980), and a two-volume edited work, Political Parties of Europe (1983). Early in his career, he was principal investigator for a National Science Foundation grant (NSF-IG-72) focusing on developmental change, social dissent, and political opposition in Europe. He was project director for a two-year United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare grant entitled “Transnational Issues: A Proposal for Curricular Development” (G00-760-3403).

This latter grant provided the foundation for the undergraduate international studies program at Case Western Reserve University. He served as Director of the International Studies program, building it to the largest interdisciplinary major in the College, from 1993 to 2011. He also served as Chair of the Department of Political Science from 1976 through 2003.

Dr. McHale has been a recurring lecturer at the Sherman Kent School for Intelligence Analysis, in Washington, D.C.; and he continues to serve as a consultant on European elections and political issues for the United States government.

Where We Meet

The Friday Public Affairs Lunch convenes each Friday when classes are in session, from 12:30 p.m. to 1:30 p.m. Our programs are open to all and no registration is required. We usually meet in the Dampeer Room of Kelvin Smith Library.

* Kelvin Smith Library requires all entrants to show identification when entering the building, unless they have a university i.d. that they can magnetically scan. We are sorry if that seems like a hassle, but it has been Library policy for a while in response to security concerns. Please do not complain to the library staff at the entrance, who are just doing their jobs.

The Dampeer Room is on the second floor of the library. If you get off the elevators, turn right, pass the first bank of tables, and turn right again. Occasionally we need to use a different room; that will always be announced in the weekly e-mails.

Parking Possibilities

The most convenient parking is the lot underneath Severance Hall. We regret that it is not free. From that lot there is an elevator up to street level (labeled as for the Thwing Center); it is less than 50 yards from that exit to the library entrance. You can get from the Severance garage to the library without going outside. Near the entry gates - just to the right if you were driving out - there is a door into a corridor. Walk down the corridor and there will be another door. Beyond that door you'll find the entrance to an elevator which goes up to an entrance right inside the doors to Kelvin Smith Library.

Schedule of Friday Lunch Upcoming Topics and Speakers:

March 3: Staffing and Organizing the Trump Presidency. With David B. Cohen, Ph.D., Professor of Political Science, University of Akron.

March 10: Nuclear Weapons. With William J. Fickinger, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor of Physics.

March 17: No program, Spring Break.

March 24: Energy Storage: A Key to Sustainability. With Daniel A. Scherson, Ph.D., Frank Hovorka Professor of Chemistry and Director, Ernest B. Yeager Center for Electrochemical Sciences.

March 31: Merkel’s Challenge: Managing Trump, Putin, and a Million Syrians. With Mark K. Cassell, Ph.D., Professor of Political Science, Kent State University.

April 7: Program to be Determined

April 14: Brazil’s Political Crises. With Juscelino F. Colares, Ph.D., Schott-Van den Eyden Professor of Business Law and Associate Director, Frederick K. Cox International Law Center.

April 21: Program to be Determined

April 28: Putin’s Russia. With Kelly M. McMann, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Political Science and Director, International Studies Program.

February 20, 2017

If you would like to reply, submit items for inclusion, or not receive this weekly e-mail please send a notice to:

Upcoming Events

The Big Sale: Elk Hills, the Energy Crisis, and the Invention of the Neoliberal Market, 1969-1998

A discussion with Peter Shulman, Ph.D., Associate Professor in the Department of History, Tuesday, February 21, 2017, 4:30 p.m. - 5:30 p.m., Clark Hall Room 206, 11130 Bellflower Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44106. Pre-Lecture reception begins at 4:15 pm. Free and open to the public. This talk is sponsored by the Baker-Nord Center for the Humanities.

In the middle of the 20th century, the most valuable piece of federal property was California’s Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve, set aside decades before to provide oil for the military in future emergencies. In 1998, the Clinton administration sold the field for $3.65 billion–still the most expensive divestiture of a single piece of public property in American history. Selling this field, a process that actually took over a quarter-century, reveals the fraught ways Americans reconciled increasing national security concerns with a drive to withdraw the federal government from the private economy.

Dr. Shulman is an associate professor in the Department of History. He studies technology, science, and American politics in the 19th and 20th centuries, with special interests in the history of energy, environmental history, communication and transportation, the history of intelligence, and the history of American foreign relations. He teaches courses in the history of technology, energy and the environment, historical methods, and contemporary history. His current book project is a history of ideas about intelligence in twentieth century America.

The Selma-Montgomery Voting Rights March and Why It Still Matters: Perspectives On A Civil Rights Landmark From People Who Were There

A discussion with Diane Phillips-Leatherberry (a marcher at Selma), Daniel T. Clancy ’62 (long-time law school and university administrator who was an FBI agent at the march), and moderator Professor Jonathan Entin , Thursday, February 23, 2017, 12:00 p.m., CWRU School of Law-Gund Hall, Room 159, 11075 East Boulevard, Cleveland, OH 44106. The program is cosponsored by the Black Law Students Association. Refreshments will be served.

Israeli Politics from Soup to Nuts

A Global Currents Discussion With Nadav Shelef Ph.D., Associate Professor of Political Science and Harvey M. Meyerhoff Professor of Israel Studies at The University of Wisconsin, Madison, Monday, March 6, 2017, 4:45 p.m. - 6:15 p.m., Ford Auditorium in the Allen Memorial Medical Library, 11000 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106. This program is made possible by the generosity of Ms. Eloise Briskin.

American voters may worry that they have only two parties from which to choose. Israelis do not have that problem.

Depending on how you count, the current Knesset (parliament) includes members of at least ten parties, representing a wide range of cleavages within the country.

As the number of parties hints, Israeli politics can be rather confusing. So the Center for Policy Studies is pleased to host Professor Nadav Shelef for an overview of the diversity and dynamics of Israel’s politics.

There are so many questions involving so many cleavages, such as Jews vs. non-Jews; ethnic cleavages within the Jewish population; how new and more recent immigrants have been incorporated into political competition; the relative weight of economic issues as opposed to identity and security issues; and the role of religion.

This lecture will explain how Israeli politics work and explore the ways in which Israel’s political institutions , especially the election rules and the party system, interact with the two main axes of Israeli politics – territory and identity – to produce the vibrant and turbulent character of the Israeli political sphere.

Nadav Shelef is the author of Evolving Nationalism: Homeland, Identity, and Religion in Israel, 1925-2005 (Cornell University Press, 2010). In this book he traces changes in how Zionism and Israeli nationalism were defined, focusing on questions such as where the “land of Israel” should be; the place of the state within the Zionist project, relationships with diaspora (especially American) Jews, and the place of religion within the state. He shows how these views evolved over time within the three major types of Zionism - Labor, Revisionist, and Religious – as each group responded both to changes in the environment and their competition with each other. Professor Shelef has also published articles in a wide range of journals, including International Organization, Security Studies, Political Science Quarterly, Middle East Journal, and Israel Studies. He received his Ph.D. and M.A. from the University of California, Berkeley, and his B.A. cum laude from the University of Pennsylvania.

February 2017




































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